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Why do we need to honour our ancestors? 佛教徒应该拜祖先吗?

(阅读华文请往下)

Why do we need to honour our ancestors?

Filial piety is a valued virtue in Chinese culture. It is given even more significance in the Mahayana Buddhist teachings where all sentient beings are viewed as our kind mothers whom we have benefitted from in our countless previous lifetimes. We should serve our parents respectfully and hold unceasing gratitude towards them even after they have passed on by dedicating merits for their good rebirth in Amitabha’s pure land and liberation from the lower realms. Besides remembering the kindness of our parents, we should be grateful to our ancestors too. For without our ancestors, we would not be who we are today. Therefore, we honour our ancestors by making offerings and conducting prayers for them.

As aspiring Bodhisattvas, we need to be compassionate towards all sentient beings especially our closest kins. By understanding the inherent suffering of our cyclic existence in samsara, we pray to attain liberation. It is also important that we make the same prayers for our ancestors who may not have heard the dharma in their previous lives and are still stuck in uncontrolled rebirths in samsara. Hence, the tradition of honouring our past ancestors should continue to be practiced. It is definitely a meritorious act to pray for our past ancestors, however, if it is due to any unfortunate circumstance that had occurred in the family and such ceremony is unable to be carried out, we should be compassionate in the given situation and pray for our past ancestors within our means.

There are many commonly asked questions about Ullambana which includes whether our past ancestors are able to receive the offerings we have made and if there is still a need to honour our ancestors after they have taken rebirth in a different life form. As explained in the Sutra of Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva, the merits accumulated from the prayers for our past ancestors would benefit them and even more for the living descendants by 6 folds.

Therefore, it is definitely beneficial to conduct prayers for our past ancestors. Should they have taken rebirth in the 3 lower realms, the prayers would be felt by them and they would gladly receive the offerings and dharma teachings. Should they have reborn as human beings, the prayers would increase their merits which in turn create causes for good health, support from people around them, and general success at work. Should they have reborn in Amitabha's pure land, the merits will help them to be promoted to a higher level and grade of rebirth.

In short, our past ancestors would benefit in one way or another from prayers regardless if they have taken rebirth in a different life form. Furthermore, the living descendants may benefit indirectly from the increased merits too. Similarly, if our ancestors had accumulated negative karma in the past, the descendants may in turn face obstacles in life and in their spiritual path due to the effect of communal karma. There is thus a greater need to conduct prayers for our past ancestors in this situation.

The Chinese custom of honouring past ancestors is a significant practice among Buddhists. Besides making offerings for our ancestors, there is a greater emphasis on praying for them to accumulate merits. The objectives are to express our gratitude for our ancestors, practice compassion, and ultimately become like the Buddha who leads all sentient beings to the liberation of their sufferings.

佛教徒应该拜祖先吗?

中华文化提倡孝道,大乘教义更提倡视一切众生为自己父母。为人子女,应好好侍奉家中的父母,即使是父母过世后,仍应该感恩,为他们累积功德,祈求他们往生净土,永离恶道。没有父母就没有我们,而没有祖父祖母,也就没有我们的父母。我们除了感恩父母的养育之恩,也应该感恩祖先的养育之恩。祭拜祖先,超度祖先,就是我们表达感恩的方式。

作为菩萨行者,我们要对众生行慈悲,则要从我们的至亲、挚爱做起。如果我们学佛,懂得思维轮回的苦,常常祈愿六道众生得到解脱,却没有想到自己的祖先父母也未曾听闻佛法,也可能在六道之中轮回,需要得到佛法的利益。这就犹如在外救济贫苦,却对家中的父母置之不理一样。所以,家里如果有祭拜祖先的传统,我们应该参与。如果有为祖先做佛事的,我们应该随喜。但如果家中因为某些变故,没有祭拜、超度祖先的习惯,那我们身为佛教徒,就应该发慈悲心,着手去做,尽自己作为后辈子孙,作为菩萨行者的责任与修行。

有人问道:“我们祭拜父母祖先,他们究竟有没有来接受供养?”,“如果父母祖先已经转世了,还需要祭拜、超度吗? 《地藏经》已经说明了,我们为先亡做七分功德,六分我们自得,先亡得一分。所以,我们为父母祖先做功德,他们一定会从中得到利益。根据六道转回,我们的先亡若是还在下三道,未曾转生为人,当然我们祭拜、超度时,他们就会感应到我们的心意,前来享用供品,听经闻法。若是先亡已经转生为人,超渡会增加他们的福份,使他身体健康,受亲友爱护,事业顺利;如果已生到西方极乐世界,也能使他莲位的品级高升。

祖先无论转生与否,都能通过我们得祭拜与超度得到利益,而祖先增加福报,我们在生之人也会增加福报。同样的道理,如果先人累积了恶业,在恶道受苦,则也会因为业缘的关系,影响后代子孙,造成后人在生活上及修法上障碍重重。碰到这样的情况,更需要超度祖先。

总而言之,敬奉祖先的华人传统对于佛教徒来说,是重要的。佛教徒除了祭拜祖先,更要超度祖先,为祖先累积功德。这样做的发心,一是为了报恩,二是为了修慈悲心,修行成佛,广度众生。